Vol. LXI, No. 23
Wednesday, June 6, 2007
Princeton University President Shirley Tilghman Tuesday slammed a 2006 U.S. Department of Education study that urges measuring the growth of student learning in college and devising a framework built from quality assessment data in gauging the academic aptitude of the nation's colleges and universities.
The criticism was central to Ms. Tilghman's annual Commencement address, which included a decided endorsement of the country's "free market system that has made U.S. higher education the envy of the world."
Ms. Tilghman specifically targeted what she called imposing a form of "standardized testing" on higher education, saying that such a measure "flies in the face of one of the great strengths of the U.S. education system the tremendous diversity among universities and colleges."
The study, "A Test of Leadership: Charting the Future of U.S. Higher Education," published by the DOE's Commission on the Future of Higher Education, suggests that "faculty must be at the forefront of defining educational objectives for students and developing meaningful, evidence-based measures of their progress toward those goals," an exercise that is already in place, Ms. Tilghman said.
"Our faculty spend a significant percentage of their time assessing student learning and providing feedback to students," she said, adding that the current nationwide system in place "ensures that for each college-bound student, there is a college or university designed with his or her interests and talents in mind.
"The homogeneity bred by standardization would almost certainly drain color and vitality from this rich national tapestry."
The study also calls for incentive plans for states, higher education associations, university systems, and institutions to develop results-oriented systems available for students and the public.
The University president, however, was on board with another of the study's aims that seeks to make higher education more affordable, and a call for an increase aid to low-income students. That is "the most important [issue] for this country," Ms. Tilghman said.
Ms. Tilghman pointed to the accomplishments of students' post-graduation success as a measure of educational quality. Specifically addressing the Princeton audience: "The real measure of a Princeton education is the manifold ways it is used by Princetonians after they leave the University," she said, using examples of graduates of the school's 1982 class as a testimonial cross-section.
The remarks were part of the University's 260th Commencement where the school awarded degrees to 1,127 undergraduates, 716 graduates, and administered honorary doctoral degrees to: Muhammad Ali, the boxing champion and humanitarian; Norman Augustine, the former COO and chairman of Lockheed Martin Corp.; molecular biologist Elizabeth Blackburn; literary translator and Princeton University Prof. Robert Fagles; cancer surgeon and researcher LaSalle Leffall Jr.; historian Fritz Stern; and Twyla Tharp, the choreographer and director.
The University honored four New Jersey secondary school teachers Tuesday. The honorees, Bruce Grefe of Creative Arts High School in Camden, Nina Lavlinskaia, of High Tech High School in North Bergen, Raymond Page, of St. Anthony High School in Jersey City, and Peggy Stewart, of Vernon Township High School in Vernon, were selected from 73 nominations from public and private schools around the state. The four honorees each received $5,000, as well as $3,000 for their respective school libraries.
Princeton University also issued the President's Award for Distinguished Teaching to four University faculty members: Eric Gregory, assistant professor of religion; Sanjeev Kulkarni, professor of electrical engineering; Kenneth Norman, assistant professor of psychology; and Alexander Smits, professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering.
Editor's Note: What follows are excerpts from Princeton University President Shirley Tilghman's Commencement address:
I am very pleased to exercise a traditional prerogative of Princeton presidents to have the first word at Opening Exercises and, now, the last word at Commencement.
You have left an indelible mark on this University, just as it has left its mark on you. Some of you contributed to a historic world premiere of a ballet written by Sergei Prokofiev in 1925 and others have performed in world premieres of plays and musicals written by your own classmates. Some among you brought honor to the University by winning over three dozen Ivy League championships, including football victories over Harvard and Yale this year that led to our first bonfire in 12 years on Cannon Green. The highly contested Dodgeball Tournament, the noisy Jadwin Jungle and the welcoming Pre-rade have become spirited Princeton traditions on your watch. You stayed long enough to see the D-Bar at the Graduate College undergo a major facelift, so now the ambience is as good as the company. Some of you donated your time to help with the recovery of Dillard University in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina, and others rebuilt homes all along the Gulf Coast. Many of you have made it a point to encounter the world outside the United States, and to hear prominent world leaders here on campus, including the presidents of Rwanda and Afghanistan, two U.S. secretaries of state, the founder of Microsoft, and a Holocaust survivor who told us that silence and indifference are the greatest sins of all. And through it all, you were the first group of students in Princeton history to have the opportunity for all four years to procrastinate on facebook.com.
Of course, while you were participating in that flurry of extracurricular activities, you were also in the process of acquiring a first-rate education. Now I purposely used the verb "acquire" rather than "receive," as education must be actively sought; it can't be passively ingested. Matriculating at a university is analogous to entering into a social contract: On one side the student is responsible for seeking out and taking advantage of the many and varied opportunities for learning, and on the other side the University is responsible for providing a fertile ground for learning in the form of a world-class faculty dedicated to both scholarship and teaching, extraordinary library and IT resources, classrooms, modern laboratories, and abundant support for thesis research everything, in fact, but 24-hour study spaces and a bowling alley. Today is as good a time as any to ask whether the terms of that contract have been realized. More precisely, what have you learned?
This question is not a purely rhetorical one. For the past two years the issue of learning assessment has been the subject of intense discussion at colleges and universities and within the federal government. In 2005 Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings commissioned a study on the future of higher education to identify the pressing national priorities for higher education. One of the issues the commission identified is, in my view, the most important one for this country: to ensure that students of modest means have access to affordable education. The commission's call for a significant increase in federal need-based financial aid has been met with enthusiastic approval throughout higher education and on Capitol Hill.
A less salutary recommendation of the commission has led to proposals from the Department of Education that for the first time in American history would impose external measures of student learning in other words, standardized testing on colleges and universities. Now, the parents, in particular, might be asking yourselves, "What is so wrong with the idea that a university should measure whether students have learned something?" In fact, we do that all the time. Our faculty spend a significant percentage of their time assessing student learning and providing feedback to students. But the notion that a federally mandated standardized test could be used to measure learning flies in the face of one of the great strengths of the U.S. education system the tremendous diversity among universities and colleges. In a free market system that has made U.S. higher education the envy of the world, students are able to choose between a large public research university like the University of Michigan and an intimate liberal arts college like Amherst College; between the science and engineering strengths of MIT and the performing arts reputation of Bard College; between The College of New Jersey to study to be a teacher or the Juilliard School to become a musician. Our system ensures that for each college-bound student, there is a college or university designed with his or her talents and interests in mind. After all, students starting college are not cut from the same cloth, and if we are successful, their college experience will nurture and develop their distinctive talents and interests and motivate them to find not one, but many ways to use their education to make our world a better place. The homogeneity bred by standardization would almost certainly drain color and vitality from this rich national tapestry. Where we see our students as prime numbers, standardization sees them as elements of the least common denominator.
On another level, the imposition of federal standards flies in the face of a long and revered tradition in this country of respecting the academic freedom of universities. In the classic articulation by Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter, this involves the freedom to decide "who may attend, who may teach, what may be taught and how it shall be taught." Academic freedom does not provide universities with carte blanche by any means, and it requires a considerable degree of self-regulation by all members of the university community.
When applied from outside the academic community, standardized testing as a means to assess student learning jeopardizes the freedom that universities need to craft their educational programs and fulfill the individualized goals of our own students.
Moreover, it is impossible to imagine a set of standardized tests that could accurately measure what our faculty aspire to impart to their students. As Woodrow Wilson, Princeton's 13th president, said so eloquently 100 years ago:
"What we should seek to impart in our colleges is not so much learning itself as the spirit of learning. It consists in the power to distinguish good reasoning and a preference for the non-partisan point of view, in an addiction to clear and logical processes of thought and yet an instinctive desire to interpret rather than to stick in the letter of the reasoning, in a taste for knowledge and a deep respect for the integrity of the human mind."
Those qualities do not lend themselves to standardized testing. The value we place on those qualities is the reason why we require that our students participate in what we believe is the most rigorous test of all the writing of a comprehensive thesis or the completion of a major independent research project.
So when it comes to the question of "How do you know you are providing your students with a good education?" my answer is as follows: "We can't really know until their 25th Reunion, because the real measure of a Princeton education is the manifold ways it is used by Princetonians after they leave the University." The undergraduate and graduate classes of 1982 celebrated their 25th Reunions this past weekend. What do their lives tell us about how well we've done?
Take, for example, David Spergel, of the undergraduate class of 1982, the chair of Princeton's Department of Astrophysical Sciences. His work has changed the way we think about the universe as the result of his participation in one of the most important of this century's or any century's experiments sending a satellite called the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe into space to measure the background microwave radiation emanating from the Big Bang. Through his splendid scientific talents, David has sent us on a new quest to understand our universe.
Then consider Eileen Guggenheim, who received her Ph.D. in art history from Princeton in 1982. Together with a group of artists and collectors, she established the New York Academy of Art, a graduate school of fine arts that is devoted to representational and figurative painting, drawing and sculpture. She has devoted many years to graduate education in the arts, and her service also extends to Princeton, where she has worked tirelessly for the last four years as a member of our Board of Trustees.
Or take Bart Gellman, another member of the undergraduate class of 1982, who shared the 2002 Pulitzer Prize for national reporting with two other colleagues from the Washington Post for their investigation into international terrorism in the wake of 9/11. In 2004 he broke the story on the lack of evidence for weapons of mass destruction in Iraq. By following the facts wherever they lead, Bart has illuminated some of the most important events of our time.
Then there is Eve Thompson of the class of 1982, who has devoted her life to promoting good governance, democracy and human rights all over the world. She has never wavered in this mission, whether she is directing a program to enhance the effectiveness of the national legislature of Guinea Bissau, or promoting environmental advocacy in Brazil, directing a program at the United Nations University International Leadership Academy in Amman, Jordan, or helping to draft the South African constitution. She truly embodies "Princeton in the service of all nations."
Or judge the success of Jeffrey Merkley, who earned an MPA from the Woodrow Wilson School in 1982. Jeff is a five-term member of the Oregon House of Representatives and currently speaker of the house. As executive director of Portland's Habitat for Humanity and in other organizations, he helped build sustainable and affordable housing for low-income families. Jeff is part of a great Princeton tradition of elected public servants who have used their education to promote the public good.
Let me conclude with Lynda Clarizio of the class of 1982, who works in one of the fastest moving industries in the world as president of Advertising.com, a subsidiary of AOL. She came to AOL after a career as an attorney, where she coordinated the U.S. Foreign Policy Project, a study of human rights and foreign-policy issues, and she continues her commitment to international human rights by serving on the board of Human Rights First, demonstrating that Princetonians never lose their talent for multi-tasking.
These six Princetonians, while hardly a random sample, are splendid representatives of the graduates of 1982 who have used their education to make lasting contributions to and beyond their chosen fields. They have done what Princeton asked them to do serve this nation and all nations, and make the world a better place for us all.
I hope that you, the graduates of 2007, will likewise use your Princeton educations to lead well-considered lives in service to the common good; that you will be open to new ideas and have the courage to stand up for your beliefs and the rights and dignity of others; and that you will adopt a global sensibility and a lifelong devotion to justice and freedom, always informed by the highest standards of integrity and mutual respect. Your success in meeting these challenges will be judged in 2032, and not by any standardized test!
And so, as you walk, skip or run through the FitzRandolph Gates today, as educated citizens of this and many other nations, I hope you will carry forward the spirit of Princeton. And I expect you will continue to do as you have done here to aim high and be bold.
My warmest wishes go forward with you all!
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